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  • Original Article 2010-06-25 2010-06-25 \ 0 \ 296 \ 533

    The Clinical Implementation of 2D Dose Distribution QA System forthe Patient Specific Respiratory-gated Radiotherapy

    Jin Sung Kim, Eunhyuk Shin, Jung Suk Shin, Sang Gyu Ju, Youngyih Han, Hee-Chul Park, Doo Ho Choi

    Abstract
    Emerging technologies such as four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) is expected to allow clinicians to accurately model interfractional motion and to quantitatively estimate internal target volumes (ITVs) for radiation therapy involving moving targets. A need exists for a 4D radiation therapy quality assurance (QA) device that can incorporate and analyze the patient specific intrafractional motion as it relate to dose delivery and respiratory gating. We built a 4D RT prototype device and analyzed the patient-specific 4D radiation therapy QA for 2D dose distributions successfully. With more improvements, the 4D RT QA prototype device could be an integral part of a 4D RT decision process to confirm the dose delivery.
  • Original Article 2010-06-25 2010-06-25 \ 0 \ 216 \ 591

    Reducing of Craniofacial Radiation Dose Using Automatic Exposure Control Technique in the 64 Multi-Detector Computed Tomography

    Youl-Hun Seoung*, Yong-Ok Kim, Bo-Young Choe*

    Abstract
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of reducing of craniofacial radiation dose using automatic exposure control (AEC) technique in the 64 multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). We used SOMATOM Definition 64 multi-detector CT, and head of whole body phantom (KUPBU-50, Kyoto Kagaku CO. Ltd). The protocol were helical scan method with 120 kVp, 1 sec of rotation time, 5 mm of slice thickness and increment, 250 mm of FOV, 512×512 of matrix size, 64×0.625 mm of collimation, and 1 of pitch. The evaluation of dose reducing effect was compared the fixed tube current of 350 with AEC technique. The image quality was measured the noise using standard deviation of CT number. The range of craniofacial bone was to mentum end from calvaria apex, which devided three regions: calvaria∼superciliary ridge (1 segment), superciliary ridge∼acanthion (2 segment), and acanthion∼mentum (3 segment). In the fixed tube current technique, CTDIvol was 57.7 mGy, DLP was 640.2 mGyㆍcm in the all regions. The AEC technique was showed that 1 segment were 30.7 mGy of CTDIvol, 340.7 mGyㆍcm of DLP, 2 segment were 46.5 mGy of CTDIvol, 515.0 mGyㆍcm of DLP, and 3 segment were 30.3 mGy of CTDIvol, 337.0 mGyㆍcm of DLP. The standard deviation of CT number was 2.622 with the fixed tube current technique and 3.023 with the AEC technique in the 1 segment, was 3.118 with the fixed tube current technique and 3.379 with the AEC technique in the 2 segment, was 2.670 with the fixed tube current technique and 3.186 with the AEC technique in the 3 segment. The craniofacial radiation dose using AEC Technique in the 64 MDCT was evaluated the usefulness of reducing for the eye, the parotid and thyroid with high radiation sensitivity particularly.
  • Original Article 2010-06-25 2010-06-25 \ 0 \ 380 \ 785

    Performance Measurement of Siemens Inveon PET Scanner for Small Animal Imaging

    A Ram Yu*, Jin Su Kim*, Kyeong Min Kim*, Young Sub Lee*, Jong Guk Kim*,Sang Keun Woo*, Ji Ae Park*, Hee Joung Kim, Gi Jeong Cheon*

    Abstract
    Inveon PET is a recently developed preclinical PET system for small animal. This study was conducted to measure the performance of Inveon PET as recommended by the NEMA NU 4-2008. We measured the spatial resolution, the sensitivity, the scatter fraction and the NECR using a F-18 source. A 3.432 ns coincidence window was used. A 1 mm3 sized F-18 point source was used for the measurement of spatial resolution within an energy window of 350~625 keV. PET acquisition was performed to obtain the spatial resolution from the center to the 5 cm offset toward the edge of the transverse FOV. Sensitivity, scatter fraction, and NECR were measured within an energy window of 350~750 keV. For measuring the sensitivity, a F-18 line source (length: 12.7 cm) was used with concentric 5 aluminum tubes. For the acquisition of the scatter fraction and the NECR, two NEMA scatter phantoms (rat: 50 mm in diameter, 150 mm in length; mouse: 25 mm in diameter, 70 mm in length) were used and the data for 14 half-lives (25.6 hr) was obtained using the F-18 line source (rat: 316 MBq, mouse: 206 MBq). The spatial resolution of the F-18 point source was 1.53, 1.50 and 2.33 mm in the radial, tangential and axial directions, respectively. The volumetric resolution was 5.43 mm3 in the center. The absolute sensitivity was 6.61%. The peak NECR was 486 kcps @121 MBq (rat phantom), and 1056 kcps @128 MBq (mouse phantom). The values of the scatter fraction were 20.59% and 7.93% in the rat and mouse phantoms, respectively. The performances of the Inveon animal PET scanner were measured in this study. This scanner will be useful for animal imaging.
  • Original Article 2010-06-25 2010-06-25 \ 0 \ 239 \ 215

    Development of the Multi-Parametric Mapping Software Based on Functional Maps to Determine the Clinical Target Volumes

    Ji-Yeon Park*, Won-Gyun Jung*, Jeong-Woo Lee, Kyoung-Nam Lee*, Kook-Jin Ahn, Semie Hong, Rahyeong Juh, Bo-Young Choe*, Tae-Suk Suh*

    Abstract
    To determine the clinical target volumes considering vascularity and cellularity of tumors, the software was developed for mapping of the analyzed biological clinical target volumes on anatomical images using regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. The program provides the functions for integrated registrations using mutual information, affine transform and non-rigid registration. The registration accuracy is evaluated by the calculation of the overlapped ratio of segmented bone regions and average distance difference of contours between reference and registered images. The performance of the developed software was tested using multimodal images of a patient who has the residual tumor of high grade gliomas. Registration accuracy of about 74% and average 2.3 mm distance difference were calculated by the evaluation method of bone segmentation and contour extraction. The registration accuracy can be improved as higher as 4% by the manual adjustment functions. Advanced MR images are analyzed using color maps for rCBV maps and quantitative calculation based on region of interest (ROI) for ADC maps. Then, multi-parameters on the same voxels are plotted on plane and constitute the multi-functional parametric maps of which x and y axis representing rCBV and ADC values. According to the distributions of functional parameters, tumor regions showing the higher vascularity and cellularity are categorized according to the criteria corresponding malignant gliomas. Determined volumes reflecting pathological and physiological characteristics of tumors are marked on anatomical images. By applying the multi-functional images, errors arising from using one type of image would be reduced and local regions representing higher probability as tumor cells would be determined for radiation treatment plan. Biological tumor characteristics can be expressed using image registration and multi-functional parametric maps in the developed software. The software can be considered to delineate clinical target volumes using advanced MR images with anatomical images.
  • Original Article 2010-06-25 2010-06-25 \ 0 \ 192 \ 198

    Effects of Arc Number or Rotation Range upon Dose Distribution at RapidArc Planning for Liver Cancer

    Hae-Jin Park*, Mi-Hwa Kim*, Mison Chun*, Yeong-Teak Oh*, Tae-Suk Suh

    Abstract
    In this paper, we evaluated the performance of 3D CRT, IMRT and three kind of RA plannings to investigate the clinical effect of RA with liver cancer case. The patient undergoing liver cancer of small volume and somewhat constant motion were selected. We performed 3D CRT, IMRT and RA plannings such as 2RA, limited triple arcs (3RA) and 3MRA with Eclipse version 8.6.15. The same dose volume objectives were defined for only CTV, PTV and body except heart, liver and partial body in IMRT and RA plannings. The steepness of dose gradient around tumor was determined by the Normal Tissue Objective function with the same parameters in place of respective definitions of dose volume objectives for the normal organs. The approach between the defined dose constraints and the practical DVH of CTV, PTV and Body was the best in 3MRA and the worst in IMRT. The DVHs were almost the same among RAs. Plans were evaluated using Conformity Index (CI), Homogeneity Index (HI) and Quality of coverage (QoC) by RTOG after prescription with dose level surrounding 98% of PTV in the respective plans. As a result, 3MRA planning showed the better favorable indices than that of the others and achieved the lowest MUs. In this study, RA planning is a technique that is possible to obtain the faster and better dose distribution than 3D CRT or IMRT techniques. Our result suggest that 3MRA planning is able to reduce the MUs further, keeping a similar or better targer dose homogeneity, conformity and sparing normal tissue than 2RA or 3RA.
  • Original Article 2010-06-25 2010-06-25 \ 0 \ 396 \ 367

    Evaluation of the Feasibility of Applying Metabolic Target Volume in 4D RT Using PET/CT Image

    Changuk Kim*, Keum Sung Chun, Kyung Hoon Huh, Yeon Shil Kim, Hong Seok Jang, Won-Gyun Jung*, Lei Xing, Tae-Suk Suh*

    Abstract
    In this study, we evaluated feasibility of applying MTV (Metabolic Target Volume) to respiratory gated radiotherapy for more accurate treatment using various SUV (Standard Uptake Value) from PET images. We compared VOI (Volume of Interest) images from 50%, 30% and 5% SUV (standard uptake volume) from PET scan of an artificial target with GTV (Gross Tumor Volume) images defined by percentage of respiratory phase from 4D-CT scan for respiratory gated radiotherapy. It is found that the difference of VOI of 30% SUV is reduced noticeably comparing with that of 50% SUV in longitudinal direction with respect to total GTV of 4D-CT image. Difference of VOI of 30% SUV from 4D-PET image defined by respiratory phase from 25% inhalation to 25% exhalation, and GTV from 4D-CT with the same phase is shown below 0.6 cm in maximum. Thus, it is better to use 4D-PET images than conventional PET images for applying MTV to gated RT. From the result that VOI of 5% SUV from 4D-PET agrees well with reference image of 4D-CT in all direction, and the recommendation from department of nuclear medicine that 30% SUV be advised for defining tumor range, it is found that using less than 30% SUV will be more accurate and practical to apply MTV for respiratory gated radiotherapy.
  • Original Article 2010-06-25 2010-06-25 \ 0 \ 419 \ 352

    First Clinical Experience about RapidArc Treatment with Prostate Cancer in Ajou University Hospital

    Hae-Jin Park*, Mi-Hwa Kim*, Mison Chun*, Young-Teak Oh*, Tae-Suk Suh

    Abstract
    In this study, the patient with localized prostate cancer who had previously been treated at Ajou University Hospital was randomly selected since March, 2009. we performed IMRT and 2RA plans and the same dose objectives were used for CTVs, PTVs, rectum, bladder, and femoral head of the respective plans. Arc optimizations and dose calculations were performed using Eclipse versions 8.6. In this paper, we evaluated the performance of IMRT and RA plans to investigate the clinical effect of RA for prostate cancer case. In our comparison of treatment techniques, RA was found to be superior to IMRT being better dose conformity of target volume. As for the rectum and bladder, RA was better than IMRT at decreasing the volume irradiated. RA has the ability to avoid critical organs selectively through applied same dose constraints while maximally treating the target dose. Therefore, this result suggests that there should be less rectal toxicity with RA compared with IMRT, with no compromise in tumor margin. These findings, which show more favorable rectal, bladder, and femoral head DVHs with RA, imply that should not result in excess risk of toxicity when this technique is used. Many experiences with RA have shown not only dosimetric advantage, but also improved clinical toxicity when comparing with IMRT. The main drawbacks of RA are the more complex and time-consuming treatment planning process and the need for more exact physics quality assurance (QA).
  • Original Article 2010-06-25 2010-06-25 \ 0 \ 331 \ 294

    Monte Carlo Study Using GEANT4 of Cyberknife Stereotactic Radiosurgery System

    Chung Il Lee*, Jae Won Shin, Hun Joo Shin, Jae Yong Jung*, Yon Lae Kim*, Jeong Hwan Min*, Seung Woo Hong, Su-Mi Chung, Won Gyun Jung*, Tae Suk Suh*

    Abstract
    Cyberknife with small field size is more difficult and complex for dosimetry compared with conventional radiotherapy due to electronic disequilibrium, steep dose gradients and spectrum change of photons and electrons. The purpose of this study demonstrate the usefulness of Geant4 as verification tool of measurement dose for delivering accurate dose by comparing measurement data using the diode detector with results by Geant4 simulation. The development of Monte Carlo Model for Cyberknife was done through the two-step process. In the first step, the treatment head was simulated and Bremsstrahlung spectrum was calculated. Secondly, percent depth dose (PDD) was calculated for six cones with different size, i.e., 5 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm, 30 mm, 50 mm and 60 mm in the model of water phantom. The relative output factor was calculated about 12 fields from 5 mm to 60 mm and then it compared with measurement data by the diode detector. The beam profiles and depth profiles were calculated about different six cones and about each depth of 1.5 cm, 10 cm and 20 cm, respectively. The results about PDD were shown the error the less than 2% which means acceptable in clinical setting. For comparison of relative output factors, the difference was less than 3% in the cones lager than 7.5 mm. However, there was the difference of 6.91% in the 5 mm cone. Although beam profiles were shown the difference less than 2% in the cones larger than 20 mm, there was the error less than 3.5% in the cones smaller than 20 mm. From results, we could demonstrate the usefulness of Geant4 as dose verification tool.
  • Original Article 2010-06-25 2010-06-25 \ 0 \ 316 \ 763

    Deduction and Verification of Optimal Factors for Stent Structure and Mechanical Reaction Using Finite Element Analysis

    Dong-Min Jeon*, Won-Gyun Jung*, Han-Ki Kim, Sang-Ho Kim, Il Gyun Shin, Hong-Seok Jang, Tae-Suk Suh*

    Abstract
    Recently, along with technology development of endoscopic equipment, a stent has been developed for the convenience of operation, shortening of recovery times, and reduction of patient's pain. To this end, optimal factors are simulated for the stent structure and mechanical reaction and verified using finite element analysis. In order to compare to present commercialized product such as Zilver (Cook, Bloomington, Indiana, USA) and S.M.A.R.T (Cordis, Bridgewater Towsnhip, New Jersey, USA), mechanical impact factors were determined through Taguchi factor analysis, and flexibility and expandability of all the products including ours were tested using finite element analysis. Also, important factors were sought that fulfill the optimal condition using central composition method of response surface analysis, and optimal design were carried out based on the important factors. From the centra composition method of Response surface analysis, it is found that importat factors for flexibility is stent thickness (T) and unit area (W) and those for expandability is stent thickness (T). In results, important factors for optimum condition are 0.17 mm for stent thickness (T) and 0.09 mm2 for unit area (W). Determined and verified by finite element analysis in out research institute, a stent was manufactured and tested with the results of better flexibility and expandability in optimal condition compared to other products. Recently, As Finite element analysis stent mechanical property assessment for research much proceed. But time and reduce expenses research rarely stent of optimum coditions. In this research, Important factor as mechanical impact factor stent Taguchi factor analysis arrangement to find flexibility with expansibility as Finite element analysis. Also, Using to Center composition method of Response surface method appropriate optimized condition searching for important factor, these considering had design optimized. Production stent time and reduce expenses was able to do the more coincide with optimum conditions. These kind of things as application plan industry of stent development period of time and reduce expenses etc. be of help to many economic development.
  • Original Article 2010-06-25 2010-06-25 \ 0 \ 273 \ 400

    Comparison of Retinal Ganglion Cell Responses to Different Voltage Stimulation Parameters in Normal and rd1 Mouse Retina

    Jang Hee Ye*, Sang Baek Ryu, Kyung Hwan Kim, Yong Sook Goo*

    Abstract
    Retinal prostheses are being developed to restore vision for the blind with retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) or age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Since retinal prostheses depend upon electrical stimulation to control neural activity, optimal stimulation parameters for successful encoding of visual information are one of the most important requirements to enable visual perception. Therefore, in this paper, we focused on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) responses to different voltage stimulation parameters and compared threshold charge densities in normal and rd1 mice. For this purpose, we used in vitro preparation for the retina of normal and rd1 mice on micro-electrode arrays. When the neural network of rd1 mouse retinas is stimulated with voltage-controlled pulses, RGCs in degenerated retina also respond to voltage amplitude or voltage duration modulation as well in wild-type RGCs. But the temporal pattern of RGCs response is very different; in wild-type RGCs, single peak within 100 ms appears while in RGCs in degenerated retina multiple peaks (∼4 peaks) with ∼10 Hz rhythm within 400 ms appear. The thresholds for electrical activation of RGCs are overall more elevated in rd1 mouse retinas compared to wild-type mouse retinas: The thresholds for activation of RGCs in rd1 mouse retinas were on average two times higher (70.50∼99.87ՌC/cm2 vs. 37.23∼61.65ՌC/cm2) in the experiment of voltage amplitude modulation and five times higher (120.5∼170.6ՌC/cm2 vs. 22.69∼37.57ՌC/cm2) in the experiment of voltage duration modulation than those in wild-type mouse retinas. This is compatible with the findings from human studies that the currents required for evoking visual percepts in RP patients is much higher than those needed in healthy individuals. These results will be used as a guideline for optimal stimulation parameters for upcoming Korean-type retinal prosthesis.
Korean Society of Medical Physics

Vol.35 No.1
2010-06-25

pISSN 2508-4445
eISSN 2508-4453
Formerly ISSN 1226-5829

Frequency: Quarterly

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