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  • Review Article 2020-09-30 2020-09-30 \ 1 \ 5831 \ 753

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Historical Overview, Technical Developments, and Clinical Applications

    Geon-Ho Jahng1 , Soonchan Park1 , Chang-Woo Ryu1 , Zang-Hee Cho2

    https://doi.org/10.14316/pmp.2020.31.3.35

    Abstract
    The authors congratulate the cerebrations for the 30 years of the Korean Society of Medical Physics (http://www.ksmp.or.kr/). The paper is published to recognize the anniversary. Geon-Ho Jahng invited Professor Z. H. Cho to join to submit this manuscript because he has been one of the leaders in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during the last 40 years. In this review, we describe the development and clinical histories of MRI internationally and domestically. We also discuss diffusion and perfusion MRI, molecular imaging using MRI and MR spectroscopy (MRS), and the hybrid systems, such as positron emission tomography一MRI (PET一MRI), MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS), and MRI-guided linear accelerators (MRI-LINACs). In each part, we discuss the historical evolution of the developments, technical developments, and clinical applications.
  • Review Article 2020-09-30 2020-09-30 \ 5 \ 6133 \ 991

    History of the Photon Beam Dose Calculation Algorithm in Radiation Treatment Planning System

    Dong Wook Kim , Kwangwoo Park , Hojin Kim , Jinsung Kim

    https://doi.org/10.14316/pmp.2020.31.3.54

    Abstract
    Dose calculation algorithms play an important role in radiation therapy and are even the basis for optimizing treatment plans, an important feature in the development of complex treatment technologies such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy. We reviewed the past and current status of dose calculation algorithms used in the treatment planning system for radiation therapy. The radiation-calculating dose calculation algorithm can be broadly classified into three main groups based on the mechanisms used: (1) factor-based, (2) model-based, and (3) principlebased. Factor-based algorithms are a type of empirical dose calculation that interpolates or extrapolates the dose in some basic measurements. Model-based algorithms, represented by the pencil beam convolution, analytical anisotropic, and collapse cone convolution algorithms, use a simplified physical process by using a convolution equation that convolutes the primary photon energy fluence with a kernel. Model-based algorithms allowing side scattering when beams are transmitted to the heterogeneous media provide more precise dose calculation results than correction-based algorithms. Principle-based algorithms, represented by Monte Carlo dose calculations, simulate all real physical processes involving beam particles during transportation; therefore, dose calculations are accurate but time consuming. For approximately 70 years, through the development of dose calculation algorithms and computing technology, the accuracy of dose calculation seems close to our clinical needs. Next-generation dose calculation algorithms are expected to include biologically equivalent doses or biologically effective doses, and doctors expect to be able to use them to improve the quality of treatment in the near future.
  • Review Article 2020-09-30 2020-09-30 \ 2 \ 1018 \ 403

    Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    Hyun-Tai Chung1,2 , Dong-Joon Lee3,4

    https://doi.org/10.14316/pmp.2020.31.3.63

    Abstract
    Stereotactic radiosurgery is one of the most sophisticated forms of modern advanced radiation therapy. Unlike conventional fractionated radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery uses a high dose of radiation with steep gradient precisely delivered to target lesions. Lars Leksell presented the principle of radiosurgery in 1951. Gamma Knife® (GK) is the first radiosurgery device used in clinics, and the first patient was treated in the winter of 1967. The first GK unit had 179 cobalt 60 sources distributed on a hemispherical surface. A patient could move only in a single direction. Treatment planning was performed manually and took more than a day. The latest model, Gamma Knife® IconTM, shares the same principle but has many new dazzling characteristics. In this article, first, a brief history of radiosurgery was described. Then, the physical properties of modern radiosurgery machines and physicists’ endeavors to assure the quality of radiosurgery were described. Intrinsic characteristics of modern radiosurgery devices such as small fields, steep dose distribution producing sharp penumbra, and multi-directionality of the beam were reviewed together with the techniques to assess the accuracy of these devices. The reference conditions and principles of GK dosimetry given in the most recent international standard protocol, International Atomic Energy Agency TRS 483, were shortly reviewed, and several points needing careful revisions were highlighted. Understanding the principles and physics of radiosurgery will be helpful for modern medical physicists.
  • Review Article 2020-09-30 2020-09-30 \ 16 \ 7477 \ 1070

    Carbon Ion Therapy: A Review of an Advanced Technology

    Jung-in Kim1,2,3 , Jong Min Park1,2,3,4 , Hong-Gyun Wu1,2,3,5,6

    https://doi.org/10.14316/pmp.2020.31.3.71

    Abstract
    This paper provides a brief review of the advanced technologies for carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT), with a focus on current developments. Compared to photon beam therapy, treatment using heavy ions, especially a carbon beam, has potential advantages due to its physical and biological properties. Carbon ion beams with high linear energy transfer demonstrate high relative biological effectiveness in cell killing, particularly at the Bragg peak. With these unique properties, CIRT allows for accurate targeting and dose escalation for tumors with better sparing of adjacent normal tissues. Recently, the available CIRT technologies included fast pencil beam scanning, superconducting rotating gantry, respiratory motion management, and accurate beam modeling for the treatment planning system. These techniques provide precise treatment, operational efficiency, and patient comfort. Currently, there are 12 CIRT facilities worldwide; with technological improvements, they continue to grow in number. Ongoing technological developments include the use of multiple ion beams, effective beam delivery, accurate biological modeling, and downsizing the facility.
  • Review Article 2020-09-30 2020-09-30 \ 2 \ 2610 \ 538

    Nuclear Medicine Physics: Review of Advanced Technology

    Jungsu S. Oh

    https://doi.org/10.14316/pmp.2020.31.3.81

    Abstract
    This review aims to provide a brief, comprehensive overview of advanced technologies of nuclear medicine physics, with a focus on recent developments from both hardware and software perspectives. Developments in image acquisition/reconstruction, especially the time-of-flight and point spread function, have potential advantages in the image signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution. Modern detector materials and devices (including lutetium oxyorthosilicate, cadmium zinc tellurium, and silicon photomultiplier) as well as modern nuclear medicine imaging systems (including positron emission tomography [PET]/computerized tomography [CT], whole-body PET, PET/magnetic resonance [MR], and digital PET) enable not only high-quality digital image acquisition, but also subsequent image processing, including image reconstruction and postreconstruction methods. Moreover, theranostics in nuclear medicine extend the usefulness of nuclear medicine physics far more than quantitative image-based diagnosis, playing a key role in personalized/precision medicine by raising the importance of internal radiation dosimetry in nuclear medicine. Now that deep-learning-based image processing can be incorporated in nuclear medicine image acquisition/processing, the aforementioned fields of nuclear medicine physics face the new era of Industry 4.0. Ongoing technological developments in nuclear medicine physics are leading to enhanced image quality and decreased radiation exposure as well as quantitative and personalized healthcare.
  • Review Article 2020-09-30 2020-09-30 \ 4 \ 3165 \ 662

    Proton Therapy Review: Proton Therapy from a Medical

    Se Byeong Lee

    https://doi.org/10.14316/pmp.2020.31.3.99

    Abstract
    With hope and concern, the first Korean proton therapy facility was introduced to the National Cancer Center (NCC) in 2007. It added a new chapter to the history of Korean radiation therapy. There have been challenging clinical trials using proton beam therapy, which has seen many impressive results in cancer treatment. Compared to the rapidly increasing number of proton therapy facilities in the world, only one more proton therapy center has been added since 2007 in Korea. The Samsung Medical Center installed a proton therapy facility in 2015. Most radiation oncology practitioners would agree that the physical properties of the proton beam provide a clear advantage in radiation treatment. But the expensive cost of proton therapy facilities is still one of the main reasons that hospitals are reluctant to introduce them in Korea. I herein introduce the history of proton therapy and the cutting edge technology used in proton therapy. In addition, I will cover the role of a medical physicist in proton therapy and the future prospects of proton therapy, based on personal experience in participating in proton therapy programs from the beginning at the NCC.
  • Review Article 2020-09-30 2020-09-30 \ 3 \ 2928 \ 731

    Deep Learning in Radiation Oncology

    Wonjoong Cheon1 , Haksoo Kim1 , Jinsung Kim2

    https://doi.org/10.14316/pmp.2020.31.3.111

    Abstract
    Deep learning (DL) is a subset of machine learning and artificial intelligence that has a deep neural network with a structure similar to the human neural system and has been trained using big data. DL narrows the gap between data acquisition and meaningful interpretation without explicit programming. It has so far outperformed most classification and regression methods and can automatically learn data representations for specific tasks. The application areas of DL in radiation oncology include classification, semantic segmentation, object detection, image translation and generation, and image captioning. This article tries to understand what is the potential role of DL and what can be more achieved by utilizing it in radiation oncology. With the advances in DL, various studies contributing to the development of radiation oncology were investigated comprehensively. In this article, the radiation treatment process was divided into six consecutive stages as follows: patient assessment, simulation, target and organs-at-risk segmentation, treatment planning, quality assurance, and beam delivery in terms of workflow. Studies using DL were classified and organized according to each radiation treatment process. State-of-the-art studies were identified, and the clinical utilities of those researches were examined. The DL model could provide faster and more accurate solutions to problems faced by oncologists. While the effect of a data-driven approach on improving the quality of care for cancer patients is evidently clear, implementing these methods will require cultural changes at both the professional and institutional levels. We believe this paper will serve as a guide for both clinicians and medical physicists on issues that need to be addressed in time.
  • Review Article 2020-09-30 2020-09-30 \ 26 \ 36241 \ 1894

    History of Radiation Therapy Technology

    Hyun Do Huh1 , Seonghoon Kim2

    https://doi.org/10.14316/pmp.2020.31.3.124

    Abstract
    Here we review the evolutionary history of radiation therapy technology through the festschrift of articles in celebration of the 30th anniversary of Korean Society of Medical Physics (KSMP). Radiation therapy technology used in clinical practice has evolved over a long period of time. Various areas of science, such as medical physics, mechanical engineering, and computer engineering, have contributed to the continual development of new devices and techniques. The scope of this review was restricted to two areas; i.e., output energy production and functional development, because it is not possible to include all development processes of this technology due to space limitations. The former includes the technological transition process from the initial technique applied to the first model to the latest technique currently used in a variety of machines. The latter has had a direct effect on treatment outcomes and safety, which changed the paradigm of radiation therapy, leading to new guidelines on dose prescriptions, innovation of dose verification tools, new measurement methods and calculation systems for radiation doses, changes in the criteria for errors, and medical law changes in all countries. Various complex developments are covered in this review. To the best of our knowledge, there have been few reviews on this topic and we consider it very meaningful to provide a review in the festschrift in celebration of the 30th anniversary of the KSMP.
Korean Society of Medical Physics

Vol.35 No.2
2020-09-30

pISSN 2508-4445
eISSN 2508-4453
Formerly ISSN 1226-5829

Frequency: Quarterly

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